This second workshop will focus on counterinsurgency and counterterrorism ; two of the most high-profile areas for capacity-building, particularly in the wake of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Debates about capacity-building in these contexts often focus on the relative ethics, costs and effectiveness of direct interventions and of training local partners, problems of local legitimacy, and the difficulties in supporting troubled and unstable governments. In the wake of COVID-19, are COIN and CT still priorities for outside sponsors facing economic disaster? How has the pandemic affected cooperation and local knowledge in capacity-building operations, and reshaped capacity-building strategies, such as in contact with partner armies, awareness of gender and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 impacts, and the priority to be placed on health care? How will these changes persist?