This fourth workshop focus on NATO and defence. Increasing superpower tensions since the early 2010s have put the risk of traditional, conventional interstate conflict back on the global security agenda in a major way, at the same time as states are competing in evolving domains such as cyber, space and AI. For an alliance like NATO, these issues raise the question of how well-equipped different member states are for defence, and how burdens are to be shared. Capacity-building is an important part of the alliance, manifested in military training activities and joint exercises. What challenges does COVID-19 raise for burden-sharing in NATO? How has it impeded joint activities? Has it caused member states to reconsider their commitments to investing in allies’ capacity for defence and in dimensions of capacity building, such as gender training, that often receive low priority? How has it changed the operation of capacity-building activities on the ground?