The Network for Strategic Analysis (NSA) has been tasked by the Canadian Joint Operations Command (CJOC) to conduct a comparative study on defence planning. Three sets of questions guide this report: 1) What is the regional, global and threat-based approach to operational and strategic planning? What are the pros and cons of each of them in the 21st century? 2) Who is using each of them now and why did they adopt them? How do the users of the global and threat-based approach feel about alternative frameworks? 3) What lessons can be learned for Canada? The report is divided in three parts. The first section presents the main approaches to force planning, their respective strengths and weaknesses, and illustrates them with the evolution of U.S. force planning. The second section reviews the current defence planning of seven allies and partners: Australia, France, Israel, Italy, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The last section presents some policy considerations for Canada.